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After the site was abandoned, probably some time in the tenth century, sediments accumulated in the millpond and between the lines of post-and-wattle fencing. The earliest post-abandonment accumulation in the millpond was a brown, silty sand, with inclusions of white marl and peat. Lying within it were some loose, damaged timbers of unknown provenance, a fragment of animal bone of unidentified species, and a chip of yew that was dated to AD — UBA Above this thin deposit, and probably dating also from the early medieval period, was a layer of mid brown, compact, sandy silt, with occasional lenses of sand and peat running through it.

Within this deposit a dressed roundwood artefact with two dowel holes was recovered. Silty, sandy peat, rich in organic remains and with visible plant matter, filled the gaps between the fences in the earliest post-abandonment phase. This, in turn, was covered by darker peat, and this completely filled the gaps between the lines of post-and-wattle barriers. The overflow channel Associated with the millpond—indeed, an integral part of it—was an overflow channel.

Although readily identifiable, this was heavily disturbed, first by a large modern field drain that ran along the western edge of excavation, and second by the machine-excavated test-trenches that initially discovered the site. One large test-trench cut through the channel leaving in situ only the very tips of the posts that lay in its path, while further machine work possibly removed the structural evidence of the overflow channel where it would have entered the tail-race. The overflow channel was defined by two post-and-wattle revetments Illus.

The posts in both fences were of mixed species mainly of alder, but some were of ash, birch, oak and willow. Up to 10 interwoven wattle rods all hazel remained in situ in the better preserved northern revetment. A single line of seven posts, with splinters of wattle, survived of the southern revetment, and remains of this became more fragmentary in the direction of the undercroft. However, some well-preserved reed matting or thatch was recovered beneath a small section of post-and-wattle collapse along the line of this fence Moore, Chapter 3.

While the overflow channel fences were easy to identify, other excavated post-and-wattle features in this part of the site were problematic because their survival was so fragmentary. First, a line of posts without wattle was discovered, 2. Its purpose is unclear. Second, there was another disturbed and fragmentary line of post-and-wattle fencing, the orientation of which suggested a continuation of the overflow channel.

Third, and most interestingly, at the north-western end of the overflow channel was an irregular structure that may have formed a sluice-gate system which would have controlled the water through the channel. It was made of six posts, aligned roughly with the two sides of the overflow channel.

Four of the posts were pieces of heavy brushwood and the remaining two were radially split. From these fragmentary remains it was unclear exactly how such a structure would have operated, but a carved hazel object 0. Pomoideae wood i. The overflow channel between the fences contained deposits that had built up after the mill had fallen out of use.

The first and earliest of three main deposits in the channel was a thinly spread maximum thickness 0. Eileen Reilly Chapter 4 suggests that this highly organic material was not formed underwater, because of the absence of waterborne insects, indicating that, by the time it was deposited, the overflow channel was no longer in use and had largely dried up.

It is possible that this material was thatch or floor matting, or that it represents refuse dumped when the mill was falling out of use and its reuseable mill-house timbers were being scavenged. The main secondary fill of the channel was a light brown peat with organic inclusions. It was rich in plant remains including bracken, moss, meadow buttercup, raspberry, blackberry, bramble and cinquefoil Lyons, Chapter 4.

The third, uppermost fill of this feature was a dark brown peat layer, with frequent inclusions of tree roots. A peaty layer also formed around the possible sluice-gate after the site fell out of use. Plant Illus. The flume and jet deflector The millpond fed directly into the wooden flume. This flume survived in an excellent state of preservation Illus. It was a shaped, hollowed and lidded oak log, which lay within a bedding trench that was cut into the subsoil, between the mouth of the millpond and the deeper cut that contained the undercroft.

The flume itself rested on a deep bed of mosses 0. A wooden wedge and a knife-sharpener or whetstone were found within this layer of moss. Cereal grains, primarily consisting of barley, were also identified within this layer Lyons, Chapter 4. There was also a layer of the same moss, 0. The flume itself was made from a large piece of oak, 2. It was carved into a rectilinear box shape, narrowing internally from 0.

In cross-section it had a height of 0. It had a detachable sliding lid—rather like an old-fashioned wooden pencil-case—secured by six wooden pegs, which were driven down diagonally through notches carved into the lid and then through the sides of the flume. These would have ensured that the lid did not lift despite the pressure of water surging through the flume.

A small area of this lid at the upper millpond end of the flume, measuring 0. It was neither pegged down nor covered by moss, indicating that it was an inspection hatch, allowing the flume be cleared of blockages such as leaves or other debris while Illus.

The end of the flume within the wheel pit had a wooden-plated aperture set within a recess and secured by four iron nails Illus. This aperture had a subcircular opening with an approximate diameter of 0. The aperture plate was carved out of yew wood. This is a significantly harder wood than oak and it would have been more resistant to the erosive effects of water pouring out of the flume. The aperture would have primarily served as a method of directing and even increasing the power of the flow of water onto the wheel-hub within the undercroft.

It appears that directing the water was also aided by a jet deflector, which is the most plausible interpretation of the double- perforated wooden wedge found above the flume aperture.

This wedge probably had a wooden bar running horizontally through the two perforations, with a vertical bar or flap now lost suspended between the perforations and extending downwards over the exit point of the water. This mechanism could have been operated by a miller using a rope or a lever on the upper floor of the mill-house.

It is likely that the aperture plate discovered during the excavation was a replacement of an earlier plate, and maybe even of several earlier plates: a series of iron nails running vertically up the left-hand side of the end of the flume served no apparent purpose and probably remained from some earlier aperture plate. After the site fell into disuse, the flume began to fill with sediments. The sediments recovered were a mix of dark brown, peaty sands and mottled, light brown, silty sands, both infused with peat Illus.

When this material was removed during the excavation, it was apparent that the interior base of the flume had been polished by the erosive effect of small mineral particles such as sand and fine gravel carried by the water when the mill was operating Illus.

The undercroft No parts of the upper floor of the mill-house were found in situ, but a wall or roof cruck and a possible floorboard were identified among the ex situ timbers that littered the site.

Also, there were two areas of straw or reed matting, originating in either a thatched roof or a rush-covered floor. By contrast, the lower floor of the mill-house, usually termed the undercroft or wheel pit, was found in an excellent state of preservation Illus.

We cannot deduce the size of the upper floor from the dimensions of the undercroft, as the two floors in medieval mill-houses were usually of unequal size, but we can say that the upper floor was at least as large as the undercroft and may have been considerably larger, given the need for working space at that upper level. This depression had a rounded edge at the north side to accommodate the flume. The southern side was open to allow water to escape from the undercroft into the tail-race.

The western side of the depression had a sharp slope while Illus. The compact, stony, grey subsoil removed in making this wheel pit was redeposited around the top of the pit on the western side. Unfortunately, these planks were very poorly preserved. Sitting directly on these planks were three base-plate timbers in the shape of an open-sided square Illus.

Slots or grooves were cut into the top surfaces of these base-plates to take the timbers that, laid on edge, formed the walls of the undercroft. Only four of these side-wall timbers survived, two on the northern base-plate and one on each of the other base-plates.

Of the three base-plates, that on the northern side—beneath the flume—was clearly put down first. It was a large, well-preserved, rectangular oak timber, 2. It had two, square, mortise holes at either end to allow the large tenons of the eastern and western base-plates to be pushed through and then secured with wedges, thus binding the structure.

This northern base-plate also had a square notch to accommodate the flume, and it had lap housings to join up with the linear grooves for the side-wall timbers on the base-plates of the eastern and western walls Illus. The base-plate of the eastern wall was also a large rectangular oak timber, 3. This tenon passed through the mortise hole of the northern wall, and a wedge or peg placed through the mortise in the tenon would have secured it in place. The linear groove containing the edge-set, side-wall timber ran for approximately three-quarters of the length of this base-plate.

The base-plate of the western wall was almost identical to the eastern one, being a large rectangular oak timber 3. It was secured to the northern timber in the same way as the eastern base-plate, and again had a linear groove running for approximately three-quarters of the length to take an edge-set, side-wall timber.

It was only after the flume was positioned in the northern base-plate that the timbers forming the side walls of the undercroft were set into their base-plate. The lower of the two timbers in the northern base-plate measured 2. This particular timber had a notch cut into it, corresponding to the notch in the base-plate, to accommodate the flume. It also had a smaller notch cut into it to accommodate the jet deflector.

The surviving side-wall timbers set into the eastern and western base-plates were less substantial, the former being 1. Again, the thin edges of both timbers were slotted into the grooves on top of the base-plates. As noted above, the southern or outer end of the undercroft was left open to allow the outflow of water into the tail-race. However, it did contain two oak timbers Illus. This timber was 1. In its upper surface were two adjacent sockets connected by a narrow channel with a width of only 0.

Almost centrally placed was a square through-mortise, and at each end was a shallow half lap-joint. This timber lay across the southern end of the undercroft and, as noted, was set into lap housings in the eastern and western base-plates respectively.

The sockets were apparently unused in the context of the surviving mill structure, so the likelihood is that this timber was reused from another, earlier timber structure, probably another mill.

Lying just outside the undercroft in the tail-race was a second timber, 1. This water-damaged timber was probably in a secondary position when discovered, having probably been disturbed from its original setting after the site fell into disuse.

One imagines that the more accessible timbers of the superstructure were quickly salvaged, opening the undercroft to the elements and accelerating the rate of post-abandonment silting and infill. Dark brown, peaty fills were identified within the cut for the undercroft, outside both the western and eastern walls.

These were composed of mossy, silty peat and had inclusions of small sub-rounded stones. Again, some of this may have been packed into place when the mill was built, to consolidate the side walls. The earliest post-abandonment deposit in the undercroft itself was a grey, silty sand, 0. This date is so early, relative to other dates from the site, that it should not be considered a chronological indicator for the deposit. It is assumed instead that this small fragment of wood derives from some older source and was washed, post-abandonment, into this layer.

The next layer that accumulated within the undercroft consisted of a peaty material with a high proportion of sand and with occasional inclusions of worked wood chips and assorted organic matter. Within this deposit a number of artefacts were recovered: two wooden paddles from the hub of the mill-wheel Illus.

The main, uppermost deposit filling the undercroft consisted of peat, with inclusions of coarse organic matter, and a large amount of wood chips, animal bone and hazelnut shells. This relatively early date in a late stratigraphic context may be a result of material being washed into this layer post- abandonment. This deposit also included a piece of worked wood with a dowel hole. Immediately to the south of the undercroft, where the tail-race began, another deposit similar in nature to the uppermost fill of the undercroft was identified.

It was a peaty material with inclusions of coarse organic matter, that extended over a distance of 5 m within the tail-race. Two important parts of the original undercroft mechanisms were found in this deposit: the bell-shaped wheel-hub and its wooden shaft, which had broken off the upper part of the wheel-hub in antiquity.

These artefacts were found approximately 2 m south of the undercroft and their ex situ location, as well as their damaged condition, demonstrates the level of disturbance and movement of material within the undercroft after the abandonment of the site.

The wheel-hub and paddles The hub of the mill-wheel was carved from a block of oak into a hydrodynamically efficient bell shape Illus. The shape was efficient because it allowed water to be directed at the sloping sides of the hub, creating an even distribution of water to the paddles. The alternative, being a direct jet onto the paddles, would have created much more pressure on the paddle ends, making them more likely to break.

A total of 24 slots indicates that the hub would have held a maximum of 24 paddles. While cleaning the hub it was discovered that every second slot contained a wooden wedge. No complete paddles were recovered in the hub but it is likely that these wedges would have served as supports or braces to secure the paddles.

Rynne, in Chapter 6, gives a contrary view, citing ethnographic evidence for the use of a shallower paddle in summer months when the flow of water was reduced. The tail-race and timber platform The tail-race of the mill was a large U-profiled ditch, cut through peat and into the natural subsoil. Its full length was not excavated as it extended beyond the limits of the lands acquired for the road.

It had a maximum width of approximately 3 m and an average depth of 1. There were low banks of upcast, redeposited subsoil along each side of the channel, which would effectively have increased the height of its sides. This upcast material sealed layers of peat that pre-dated the mill, and a prehistoric flint blade was found within one of these layers.

The base of the tail-race channel was gently undulating, presumably an effect of water erosion, and it deepened gradually as it travelled away from the mill building. However, at approximately 5. The group of planks in the tail- race is interpreted as a remnant of another mill on the same mill-race. At this point another structure was discovered: a timber platform Illus. This platform, approximately 2. The planks appeared to have facets and features, such as dowel holes, which had no clear function in the context of the platform.

These features suggest that the timbers were reused from another, older structure. Two of the timbers gave dendrochronology dates of after AD and after AD i. What was this platform? One possibility is that it may have been part of a bridge-like structure allowing access between one side of the tail-race and the other. It lay low relative to the elevated sides of the tail-race, so we would need to envisage it as the base of a substantial Illus.

Indeed, four roughly dressed wooden mill with foreground the flume and base-plates of the poles, which were discovered lying directly on undercroft. A second possibility is that this platform was an anti-erosion device: it was positioned at a point where the base of the channel fell away sharply and where scouring of the tail-race bed was likely to be severe, so one could envisage it as a barrier to heavy erosion. A third possibility, favoured here, is that it was the base of another mill. The evidence in favour of this third suggestion is circumstantial but convincing.

The millpond on the north side of the flume lay at an altitude of This gives a difference of 0. This is exactly mirrored by the difference in height of the base of the tail-race immediately prior to the platform altitude Again, this amounts to a difference of 0. The platform itself was of comparable dimensions to the floorboards of the undercroft, both lying transverse to the flow of water.

Series of mills on the same channels are not unknown in the archaeological record of early medieval Ireland, and an earlier mill on the watercourse at Kilbegly would help to explain the recycled timbers found in the existing undercroft and millpond. On this basis, then, there is a strong possibility that the timber platform was part of another, presumably earlier, horizontal mill.

Note the fall in levels from the millpond to the undercroft and, within the tail-race, to a group of timber planks in its bed.

As the tail-race channel was dug into the natural glacial subsoil, erosion of the sides occurred, especially towards the south. Large and medium-sized stones were placed along the sides to strengthen them and to limit erosion beneath the redeposited subsoil on the upper edges.

Post-abandonment, the tail-race channel was filled by a number of deposits. The main basal fill consisted of dark brown, firmly compacted peat, with inclusions of yellowish grey, coarse sand, and varying in thickness from 0.

A well-preserved wooden spade, a carved wooden artefact with a dowel hole, and three wooden pegs were all recovered from this deposit. Two other fills appear to have been broadly contemporary with the main basal fill.

The first of these was located along the eastern side of the tail-race channel. It was a dark grey, silty clay deposit, and contained inclusions of natural tree roots. This may simply be a variation of the main basal deposit. The second of these other basal deposits was located alongside the western edge of the tail- race and consisted of a mid to light brown mixture of peat, sand and gravel, with inclusions of broken wooden elements such as wattle, which had been presumably washed down the tail-race.

Again, this fill may simply be a variation of the main, basal fill. Overlying the basal deposits, the main secondary fill of the tail-race consisted of whitish-grey, very firm, coarse sand. It had inclusions of small to medium-sized sub-angular stones, several fragments of animal bone, and a large amount of timber fragments.

Finds from this fill included pieces of worked wood three of which have dowel holes , fragments of a leather bag or shoe, and a possible bone pin or needle. This secondary deposit ran for the length of the tail-race within the excavation area. It is possible that it was a mixture of the redeposited material lining the tail-race to the east and west, which may have collapsed into the cut upon the abandonment of maintenance of the tail-race.

It was sealed by the main tertiary fill. The main tertiary fill of the tail-race consisted of mid brown peat with occasional inclusions of sand and gravel, also loose timbers and wattle fragments, which had presumably been washed down the race.

Two artefacts were also recovered from this material: a plain, copper-alloy, loop-headed, ringed pin, and a dressed wooden peg. The final and uppermost deposit filling the tail-race consisted of beige-coloured silt with inclusions of peat. It possibly represents a flooding event due to the presence of fluvial silt, typically a waterborne deposit. It was cut by modern, moulded plastic, field drains. Dating the mill The known dates for early medieval horizontal-wheeled mills in Ireland indicate a floruit of c.

AD — and, on typological grounds alone, the construction and use of the mill at Kilbegly could be ascribed to this period. Radiocarbon dates and dendrochronological dates from the site allow for a more specific assessment. They indicate a period of construction and use between the mid seventh and late ninth centuries but also hint at an older mill on the same site. All sates lioai. Cali or details. Detailed batttes, new land combat system, operational artifi- cial intelligence, six scenarios, replay feature for reliving battles, network and mo- dem play!

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From the left are: Pr of. Sue Walker, from. Jan Smit. Basie Verster. Whereas all of these compounds seemed effective in reducing premature responding, this only appeared to occur at doses that also strongly affected other behavioural parameters reflecting task performance, hampering a straightforward interpretation of these findings.

Most prominently, the doses of these compounds reducing premature responding also increased the errors of omission and lengthened response latencies. These observations indicate that the effects on inhibitory response control may be secondary to general behavioural changes, e.

On the other hand, the observation that the highest dose isoprenaline increased the omissions and the response latencies but not premature responding might argue against such an interpretation.

Our current findings are supported by previous studies, in which direct adrenoceptor agonists have been reported to lead to general behavioural alterations including lengthening of response latencies and increments in response omissions in instrumental behaviour for example see, Jentsch et al.

Thus, consistent with these observations, a similar behavioural profile was obtained with clonidine in the current study. Although we did not test the lower doses of clonidine, previous work employing such lower doses in a different instrumental behaviour task reveals that the therapeutic window of this compound is narrow and associated with response rate suppressive effects Dekeyne and Millan Berridge and Foote ; Buzsaki et al.

Since all compounds were administered peripherally, it is at present difficult to disentangle the effects of clonidine on prefrontal cortical cognitive function from its somatomotor effects as this would require intracranial administration approach. Thus, while clonidine seemed to improve inhibitory response control consistent with earlier data Milstein et al. In this regard, there are indications that the beneficial effects of an elevated noradrenergic tone might particularly become apparent under conditions of poor performance or lower baseline noradrenergic tone Jentsch and Anzivino ; Jentsch et al.

Accordingly, phenylephrine improved accurate choice, albeit separate post hoc comparisons on the high-dose phenylephrine 3. The effects of phenylephrine on premature responding occurred in concert with effects on response latencies and omission rate and may therefore will be secondary to its effects on somatomotor activity. Moreover, in contrast to the high-dose clenbuterol, the intermediate 0. Thus, in extension to beneficial effects on working memory Ramos et al. Indeed, clenbuterol has been shown to exert myotoxic and potent haemodynamic effects in rats starting at doses of 0.

Although in the current study, lower doses of clenbuterol were employed 0. Nonetheless, this effect was only observed at the highest dose of 6. At the same time, it should be noted that these beneficial effects on attention were not accompanied by significant improvements of inhibitory control.

In summary, the present data extend previous findings and show that indirect as well as direct adrenoceptor agonists improve inhibitory response control in the 5CSRTT. This corroborates the notion that the central noradrenergic system is involved in optimizing behavioural responses including executive cognitive functioning for reviews, see, e.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and source are credited. Psychopharmacology Berl. Published online Jul Schoffelmeer , 1 and Marcel M. Anton N. Marcel M. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Corresponding author. Received Jan 10; Accepted Jun Objectives The present study aimed at investigating the effects of adrenoceptor agonists on inhibitory response control as assessed in the rodent 5-choice serial reaction time task, a widely used translational model to measure this executive cognitive function. Results Consistent with the previous reported effects of atomoxetine, the noradrenaline transporter inhibitor desipramine improved inhibitory response control, albeit the effect size was smaller compared to that of atomoxetine.

Behavioural procedure To habituate animals to the operant chambers, rats were exposed to the operant chambers for 20 min with the houselight on and the food cup containing three food pellets for two consecutive sessions.

Two different measures of inhibitory control were measured, namely 1 the percentage of premature responses before stimulus onset, calculated as. Methylphenidate Methylphenidate had a biphasic effect on the percentage premature responses [Fig.

Open in a separate window. Table 1 Effects of indirect and direct adrenoceptor agonists on the percentage of perseverative responses and latencies to collect food reward after correct choice. Desipramine The selective NA reuptake inhibitor desipramine dose dependently decreased the percentage of premature responses [Fig. Dobutamine Three animals were excluded from all analyses, as these individuals consistently omitted over 50 trials in all drug dose treatments including vehicle treatment.

Discussion The present data are consistent with a functional role of noradrenergic transmission in inhibitory response control processes.

Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank Mieke C. Janssen for excellent technical assistance. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and source are credited.

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